Tokharians and Uighurs of
the City States of Central Asia in

Frescos etc from the Tarim Basin

Kizil {Qyzil} Caves (near Kucha)





Karashahr {Qarasahr} (between Kucha & Turfan)



Chotscho {Xoqo, Khocho, Qočo}, Bezeklik {Bäzäklik} Caves, Tumshuk and City on the Yâr {Yarkhoto} (near Turfan)







Mucilinda cave, Tuyoq (70 km east of Turfan)



Dandān-uiliq (near Khotan)


Wind-sock standards
Horses and saddles
Preserved shoes and hats
Some of the material removed to Germany was destroyed during WWII.
Main Source: Rare books at the National Institute of Informatics - Digital Silk Road Project
Background articles in English
Reference: EXCAVATIONS iv. In Chinese Turkestan Encyclopaedia Iranica



Referenced on pp. 173-4, vol. 1, The military technology of classical Islam by D Nicolle
    The spread of lamellar armour from Central Asia across the Muslim world is altogether easier to chart. Its terminology is generally less contentious and the illustrated material is simpler to interpret. As discussed earlier: such a form of defence may have originated in the ancient Middle East but by the immediate pre-Islamic centuries lamellar armours of iron or a mixture of iron and bronze were far more characteristic of Central Asia and eastern Iran than the Fertile Crescent35 (Figs. 61, 67, 82, 428, 435, 437, 440, 443, 451, 453, 454, 455, 462, 463, 464, 471, 472, 474, 478, 480 and 481). There is, however, some evidence to suggest that they were known in 7th century Arabia, although they are likely to have been rare.36 Indeed, lamellar would seem to have been highly prized and expensive even in those Transoxanian regions where it was not common, and remained so well into the Muslim era.37
    The increased importance of lamellar in eastern Islam and in the partially subdued Christian regions of the Caucasus is clearly documented as is its spread westward into Muslim Anatolia towards the end of the period under review39 (Figs. 220B, 306, 309, 316, 348, 410, 442, 444, 447, 638, 641 and 642C). References could be multiplied ten- or twenty-fold if one included all those concerning armours known to be of lamellar, such as the jawshan and kamarband, rather than simply those that described lamellar, its appearance, construction or fastenings.

35. Robinson, Oriental-Armour p. 130; Laufer, op. cit., pp. 208 and 214; W. Hauser, "The Persian Expedition, 1933-1934," Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art XXIX (1934), p. 8.
36. Schwarzlose op. cit., pp. 327 and 346.
37. Narshakhī, op. cit., p. 46; al Ṭabarī: op. cit., vol. II, pp. 256 and 1889.
38. Firdawsī, op. cit., pp. 270, 273, 427, 688 and 953; Anon., The Book of Dede Korkut, p. 166; Rust'haveli, op. cit., verse 220.



See also Cup with horseman, Khwarezm c.7th to beginning of the 8th Century in a coat with large lapels.
Sogdian murals from Panjakent, 6th-8th Centuries
A Sogdian Mortuary Couch, Bas Relief, Northern Qi dynasty, A.D. 550-577

Ancient Illustrations and Articles
8th century Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers
Index